Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) on the banks of the Musi River in southern India. Its population is 6.8 million, and its metropolitan area increases that number to 7.75 million people, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration.
Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE as Bhaganagar by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda. It remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city became part of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj for more than two centuries. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union at the conclusion of Operation Polo. The 1956 States Reorganisation Act established the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital.
Throughout its history, the city was a center for local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. It is a tourist destination and has many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sports venues and other cultural institutions—Laad Bazar, Madina Circle, Begum Bazaar, Sultan Bazaar are bazaars from the Qutb Shahi and Nizam era; Salar Jung, Nizam Museum, and AP State Archaeology Museum are notable museums. Hyderabadi biriyani and Hyderabadi haleem are examples of distinctive culinary products of the city.
Historically, Hyderabad was known for its pearl and diamond trading centres. Industrialisation brought major Indian manufacturing and financial institutions to the city, such as the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the Defence Research and Development Organisation and the National Mineral Development Corporation. Emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries from 1990s earned it the titles of "India's pharmaceutical capital" and the "Genome Valley of India". The Telugu film industry is based in Hyderabad.