Madurai is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the Second largest city and the second largest municipal corporation in tamilnadu next only to Chennai.It is the most important city in Tamilnadu state after chennai. It is the Second capital of Tamilnadu by administration headquarters of southern districts in Tamilnadu. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, it has been a major settlement for over two millennia.
Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language as all three primary congregations of Tamil scholars, the Third Tamil Sangams, were held in the city between the 1780 BCE to 3rd century CE. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BC, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to India, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Pandyas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Chanda Sahib, Carnatic kingdom, and the British. The city has a number of historical monuments, the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent among them. The city celebrates several festivals, the most important being the annual 10-day Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival (also called Chittirai festival), celebrated during April–May, that attracts 1 million visitors. Madurai is also known for Jallikattu, the annual bull taming event celebrated along with the Thai Pongal festival, organised in villages outside the city.